Russell Skinner, MD
Sleep plays a vital role in good health and wellbeing. Getting enough quality sleep at the right times can help protect your mental health, physical health, quality of life, and safety.
During sleep, your body is working to support healthy brain function and maintain your physical health. In children and teens, sleep also helps support growth and development.
The damage from sleep deficiency can occur in an instant (such as a car crash), or it can harm you over time. It also can affect how well you think, react, work, learn, and get along with others.
An increasing number of epidemiological studies show an association between sleep disturbances, including sleep insufficiency, circadian dysfunction and sleep fragmentation, with metabolic and endocrine dysfunction, in particular abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity and type 2 diabetes.
In a cross-sectional study, short sleep duration was related to insulin resistance in high school students. An overnight sleep study revealed that short duration of stage 3 and 4 NREM sleep was associated with insulin resistance in adolescents. In clinical studies, decreased glucose tolerance in healthy adults was observed during waking hours after several nights of sleep reduction ranging from 4 to 5 h/night. These findings and others indicate that sleep quality in terms of amount of time spent in slow-wave, deep sleep may be directly related to the circadian rhythm of glucose metabolism.
Well-controlled studies also link insufficient with changes in the activity of our neuroendocrine systems resulting in outcomes such as increased appetite, enhanced sensitivity to food stimuli, and, ultimately, a surplus in energy intake.
Improving sleep is becoming an appealing target for the prevention, and probably treatment, of metabolic disease.
Recent studies also link sleep disturbances during pregnancy to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal hyperglycemia. The incidence and prevalence of hyperglycemia are increasing worldwide, which is cause for concern because GDM and even mild hyperglycemia are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Practical Tips for Improving Your Sleep: